Nephrology

NEPHROLOGIST VS UROLOGIST

NEPHROLOGIST VS UROLOGIST

NEPHROLOGIST VS UROLOGIST Q. What is the difference between a urologist and a nephrologist? Ans. Hello and Welcome I appreciate your concern Both , Urologists and nephrologists treat and address diseases and issues related to the kidney. Urologists are  basically surgeons that have specialized in treating structural abnormalities and diseases of the urinary tract. These include urinary tract stones, strictures and blockages including kidney cancer. Urologists have a number of gadgets at their disposal for performing various types of procedures such as Cystoscopy, Extracorporeal...

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ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS INTERPRETATION

ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS INTERPRETATION

ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS INTERPRETATION made easy. An easy method for ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS INTERPRETATION is described with the help of a test case. We require three values in this regard. pH PCO2 HCO3 Firstly, let us determine what the normal values are for these. These are rough estimates which hold true in most cases and one can let go of normal ranges especially from exam point of views and generally interpreting ABGs. Remember these 3 values 7.4 / 40 / 24 The normal pH is taken as...

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Renal tubular acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis

Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a buildup of acid in the body resulting in a metabolic acidosis with a normal anion gap due to improper and dysfunctional acidification of the urine in the kidney tubules. RTA and diarrhea are two of the most important conditions involving a normal anion gap with a metabolic acidosis. The normal value of anion gap in both diarrhea and Renal tubular acidosis is because in both these disorders, the chloride level compensates and rises to...

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HYPERKALEMIA TREATMENT GUIDELINES

HYPERKALEMIA TREATMENT GUIDELINES

This article attempts to simplify HYPERKALEMIA TREATMENT GUIDELINES. Hyperkalemia is basically a serum potassium level of greater than 5.5 mEq/l. It is a life threatening disorder. The knowledge of electrolyte imbalance with respect to potassium is critical for any physician. Hyperkalemia can lead to arrhythmias and stop the heart within seconds if severe and left untreated. Clinically, it mainly affects the skeletal/ gut muscles and heart (cardiac muscle). There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms. They may be present with varying degree...

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Hyperphosphatemia treatment

Hyperphosphatemia treatment in Chronic kidney disease. CKD (Chronic Kidney disease) is also referred to as chronic renal failure or CRF. CKD is a decreased glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 for a minimum period of 3 months. There is a positive phosphate balance in chronic kidney disease. There are 2 forms of vitamin D. 25 hydroxyl form of Vitamin D is converted to the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] form. This conversion takes place in the kidneys. Kidney regulates phosphorus excretion. Kidney...

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URINE ANION GAP

URINE ANION GAP

Urine anion gap is the difference between the sodium and chloride ions in the urine. To put it simply Urine Anion Gap =  Urine Sodium minus Urine Chloride Urine Anion Gap  = Urine Na  -   Urine Cl Normal urine anion gap is usually less than 10 meq/L. The utility of calculating the urine anion gap is in differentiating between Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA) and Diarrhea specifically as the causes of metabolic acidosis which has a normal anion gap. Anion gap is calculated both for serum...

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